Praise be to Allah.
Everything is standing in its position by the permission of Allaah, whether it be the heavens and all that is in them or the earth and all that is on it – even the rock which you asked about. Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):
“Verily, Allaah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him…” [Faatir 35:41]
“And among His Signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His Command…” [al-Room 30:25]
The Rock in Bayt al-Maqdis is not suspended in space with air around it on all sides; it is attached to the side of the mountain of which it is a part and by which it is supported; both it and the mountain stand in their positions because of the well-known physical laws governing the universe; in this regard it is like everything else that exists. We do not deny that Allaah is Able to hold part of His creation in space; all of creation is standing in space by the power of Allaah, as stated above. Allaah raised the mountain above the people of Moosa when they refused to follow the laws that Moosa brought them. It was held up by the power of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (remember) when We took your Covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): ‘Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may become al-muttaqoon (the pious).” [al-Baqarah 2:63]
“And (remember) when We raised the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): ‘Hold firmly to what We have given you, and remember that which is therein, so that you may fear Allaah and obey Him.” [al-A’raaf 7:171]
But our point here is to explain what is in fact the case: the rock in Jerusalem is not suspended in space, completely separate from the mountain; it is attached to it and is supported by it. And Allaah knows best.