Praise be to Allah.
The husband’s saying “you are not my wife” and “we are finished” is not from the explicit wordings of divorce and so divorce does not take effect unless that was the intent of the husband. He must be consulted to know this.
It appears from your question that your husband explicitly divorced you three times on separate occasions. The first of them was when he said: “you are divorced” over the phone, the second was when he said “I divorce you ten times” and the third was when he said “I divorce you” after he learned that you wanted to get a divorce through the mosque.
Based on this, your divorce from your husband is final and you are not permitted to return to him until after you marry someone else genuinely, not for the sake of becoming lawful for your first husband again, and that second husband were to either die or divorce you. Allah says (what means): “Divorce is twice. Then, either keep [her] in an acceptable manner or release [her] with good treatment. And it is not lawful for you to take anything of what you have given them unless both fear that they will not be able to keep [within] the limits of Allah. But if you fear that they will not keep [within] the limits of Allah, then there is no blame upon either of them concerning that by which she ransoms herself. These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah – it is those who are the wrongdoers. And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep [within] the limits of Allah. These are the limits of Allah, which He makes clear to a people who know.” [2:229-230]
However, if the husband claims the marriage is still valid and contests the validity of one of the pronouncements of divorce, then you must refer to one of the people of knowledge at an Islamic Centre or elsewhere so they can listen to all the details from both of you.
You must be aware that what counts is the execution of divorce according to Islamic Law and not the judgement of the civil court. Refer to the answer to question 127179.
We ask Allah to guide you to good, obedience and repentance.
And Allah knows best.