Praise be to Allaah.
If a person
is sick and cannot bring water and do wudoo’ with it, or he is incapable of
moving, his situation should be examined further:
If there is
someone who can bring water at the time of prayer and help him to do wudoo’,
then wudoo’ is obligatory in his case.
If there is
no one who can help him do wudoo’, then it is prescribed for him to do
tayammum in that case, and he comes under the same ruling as one who does
not have any water and cannot find any.
because Allaah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can”
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If I command
you do a thing, do as much of it as you can.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari
(7277); Muslim (1337).
(may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (1/151):
If a person
is sick and unable to move, and there is no one who can bring him water,
then he is like one who has no water, because he has no way to obtain any
water. So he is like one who finds a well but has no means of drawing water
If he has
someone who can bring him water before the time for prayer ends, then he is
like one who can find water, because he is in the same position as one who
finds something with which to draw water within that time.
If he is
afraid that the time will end before he comes, then Ibn Abi Moosa said: he
may do tayammum, and he does not have to repeat wudoo’. This is the view of
al-Hasan, because he is without water during the time for prayer, so he is
exactly like one who has no water. End quote.
said in al-Insaaf (1/265):
If the sick
person is unable to move and there is no one to do wudoo’ for him, then he
comes under the same ruling as one who has no water.
If he fears
that the time for prayer will end if he waits for someone to do wudoo’ for
him, he should do tayammum and pray, and he does not have to repeat it
according to the correct view. End quote.
al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh
If he is not
able to use water because he is unable to move to where the water is, and he
does not have anyone to bring water to him, then he is like one who has no
water. If he has someone who can bring water to him within the time (for the
prayer), then he is like one who has water. End quote.
It says in
al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (14/260):
The one who
is incapacitated and cannot use water should do tayammum, and he does not
have to repeat it, like one who is forced, detained or tied up near water,
or one who is afraid of animals, whether he is travelling or not, because he
comes under the same ruling as one who has no water. The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Clean earth is a
means of purification for the Muslim, even if he cannot find water for ten
years. When he finds water, he should let it touch his skin, for that is
good.” End quote.
question no. 20935.
If he is
able to wash some of the parts of the body that are washed in wudoo’, but
his sickness prevents him from washing the rest, then he has to wash
whatever he can of the parts that are washed in wudoo’, and he should do
tayammum instead of the parts that he cannot wash. This has been explained
in the answer to question no. 67614.
to how tayammum is done:
‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (1/488):
In my view,
how it is to be done in accordance with the Sunnah is as follows: he should
strike the earth with his hands once, without spreading the fingers, and
wipe his face with his hands, then he should wipe one hand with the other.
Thus tayammum will be completed. End quote.
It has been
described in detail in question no.
If a sick
person who is unable to use water does tayammum, then it becomes easier for
him to use water after he has finished his prayer, he does not have to
repeat it, because he has done what is required of him and what he is
commanded to do.
al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in Sharh al-‘Umdah (1/425):
Allaah enjoined one prayer at a specific time which is to be done according
to what one is able to do, and the condition is waived in the event that one
is unable to fulfil it. The words of the Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him), “Clean earth is a means of purification for the
Muslim” and “Soil is sufficient for you” indicate that it takes the place of
water in all cases. End quote.
differed with regard to doing tayammum by striking the walls of one’s house,
based on their differences of opinion as to the meaning of the verse in
which Allaah says (Interpretation of the meaning):
Tayammum with clean earth”
view is that what is meant by sa’eed (clean earth) is the face of the
earth, whether it is dirt, sand or stones, etc.
this, if the wall is not covered with anything, then it is permissible to
use it for tayammum, whether there is dust on it or not, because it is made
of clean earth. But if it is covered with wood or paint, then this wood or
paint is not sa’eed (clean earth) and it is not valid to use it for
tayammum, unless there is dust on it, because dust comes under the heading
question no. 36774.
to the way in which a sick person who is unable to move should pray:
It says in
al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (26/208):
person or the one who is suffering partial paralysis should do those pillars
(essential parts) of the prayer that he is able to, according to the
majority of fuqaha’, because the one who is unable to do something is not
obliged to do it. If he is unable to stand, he may pray sitting and he
should bow and prostrate. If he is unable to do that, then he should pray
sitting and lean forward for bowing and prostration, leaning more for
prostration than bowing. If he is unable to sit, then he should lie down and
use gestures, because the essential parts are waived if one is unable to do
them, and he should do as much as he is able.
Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I fell sick and the Messenger
of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) visited me and
said: “Pray standing, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot,
then lying on your side, making gestures.” End quote.
Saalih al-Fawzaan was asked: I have a father who is sick and paralyzed on
the left side of his body, which he is completely unable to move. Hence he
cannot walk or move or do anything for himself or relieve himself. This has
been the case for ten years. But three or four months ago this sickness got
even worse. Is it permissible for him to stop praying for this reason,
because he cannot purify himself for prayer?
If it is not
permissible, how should he purify himself and pray?
he do about the prayers that he missed in the past because of his sickness,
because he thought that so long as he was like that, he was excused from
is not excused from praying so long as he is of sound mind, but he should
pray according to his situation, because Allaah says (interpretation of the
your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can”
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Pray
standing, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot, then lying on
father who is stricken with paralysis can do wudoo’ by himself using his
sound hand, or if someone else can help him to do wudoo’, then he must do
If he is not
able to do wudoo’ using water, then he must do tayammum using earth.
If he cannot
do tayammum by himself, then someone else should do tayammum for him: one of
his family who is taking care of him or one of those who are present should
strike his hands on the ground, and wipe his face and hands, intending that
to be a purification for him, then he should pray according to his
situation, sitting or lying on his side, gesturing with his head for bowing
and prostrating, according to what he is able to do.
If he cannot
gesture with his head because of the paralysis, then he may indicate bowing
and prostrating with his eyes.
easy, praise be to Allaah, but that does not mean that he should give up
praying altogether. Rather he should pray according to his situation as we
have described. And he has to make up the prayers that he missed, as best he
can. End quote.
Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Fawzaan (4/no. 27)
And Allaah knows best.