Praise be to Allaah.
Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The conditions of hijaab:
(It should cover all the body apart from whatever has been exempted).
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of
the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves
completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they
should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
This aayah clearly states that it is obligatory to cover all of a
womans beauty and adornments and not to display any part of that before non-mahram
men (strangers) except for whatever appears unintentionally, in which case
there will be no sin on them if they hasten to cover it up.
Al-Haafiz ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer:
This means that they should not display any part of their adornment to
non-mahrams, apart from that which it is impossible to conceal. Ibn Masood said:
such as the cloak and robe, i.e., what the women of the Arabs used to wear, an outer
garment which covered whatever the woman was wearing, except for whatever appeared from
beneath the outer garment. There is no sin on a woman with regard to this because it is
impossible to conceal it.
(it should not be an adornment in and of itself).
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
and not to show off their adornment
[al-Noor 24:31]. The general meaning of this phrase includes the outer garment,
because if it is decorated it will attract mens attention to her. This is supported
by the aayah in Soorat al-Ahzaab (interpretation of the meaning):
And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like
that of the times of ignorance [al-Ahzaab 33:33]. It is also supported by the
hadeeth in which the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
There are three, do not ask me about them: a man who leaves the jamaaah,
disobeys his leader and dies disobedient; a female or male slave who runs away then dies;
and a woman whose husband is absent and left her with everything she needs, and after he
left she made a wanton display of herself. Do not ask about them.
(Narrated by al-Haakim, 1/119; Ahmad, 6/19; from the hadeeth of
Faddaalah bint Ubayd. Its isnaad is saheeh and it is in al-Adab al-Mufrad).
(It should be thick and not transparent or see-thru)
- because it cannot cover properly otherwise. Transparent or see-thru
clothing makes a woman more tempting and beautiful. Concerning this the Prophet
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: During the last days of my ummah there
will be women who are clothed but naked, with something on their heads like the humps of
camels. Curse them, for they are cursed. Another hadeeth adds: They will not
enter Paradise or even smell its fragrance, although its fragrance can be detected from
such and such a distance.
(Narrated by Muslim from the report of Abu Hurayrah).
Ibn Abd al-Barr said: what the Prophet
blessings of Allaah be upon him) meant was women who wear clothes made of light fabric
which describes and does not cover. They are clothed in name but naked in reality.
Transmitted by al-Suyooti in Tanweer al-Hawaalik, 3/103.
(It should be loose, not tight so that it describes any part of the
The purpose of clothing is to prevent fitnah (temptation), and this can
only be achieved if clothes are wide and loose. Tight clothes, even if they conceal the
colour of the skin, still describe the size and shape of the body or part of it, and
create a vivid image in the minds of men. The corruption or invitation to corruption that
is inherent in that is quite obvious. So the clothes must be wide. Usaamah ibn Zayd said:
The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave me a thick
Egyptian garment that was one of the gifts given to him by Duhyat al-Kalbi, and I gave it
to my wife to wear. He said, Why do I not see you wearing that Egyptian
garment? I said, I gave it to my wife to wear. He said, Tell her
to wear a gown underneath it, for I am afraid that it may describe the size of her
bones. (Narrated by al-Diyaa al-Maqdisi in al-Ahaadeeth
al-Mukhtaarah, 1/442, and by Ahmad and al-Bayhaqi, with a hasan isnaad).
(It should not be perfumed with bakhoor or fragrance)
There are many ahaadeeth which forbid women to wear perfume when they
go out of their houses. We will quote here some of those which have saheeh isnaads:
Abu Moosa al-Ashari said: the Messenger of Allaah
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Any woman who puts on perfume then passes by
people so that they can smell her fragrance, is an adulteress.
Zaynab al-Thaqafiyyah reported that the Prophet
(peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) said: If any one of you (women) goes out to the mosque, let her
not touch any perfume.
Abu Hurayrah said: the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of
Allaah be upon him) said: Any woman who has scented herself with bakhoor (incense),
let her not attend Ishaa prayers with us.
Moosa ibn Yassaar said that a woman passed by Abu Hurayrah and her scent
was overpowering. He said, O female slave of al-Jabbaar, are you going to the
mosque? She said, Yes, He said, And have you put on perfume
because of that? She said, Yes. He said, Go back and wash
yourself, for I heard the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
say: If a woman comes out to the mosque and her fragrance is overpowering, Allaah
will not accept any prayer from her until she goes home and washes herself.
These ahaadeeth are general in implication. Just as the prohibition
covers perfume applied to the body, it also covers perfume applied to the clothes,
especially in the third hadeeth, where bakhoor (incense) is mentioned, because incense is
used specifically to perfume the clothes.
The reason for this prohibition is quite clear, which is that
womens fragrance may cause undue provocation of desires. The scholars also included
other things under this heading of things to be avoided by women who want to go to the
mosque, such as beautiful clothes, jewellery that can be seen, excessive adornments and
mingling with men. See Fath al-Baari, 2/279.
Ibn Daqeeq al-Eed said:
This indicates that it is forbidden for a woman who wants to go to the
mosque to wear perfume, because this causes provocation of mens desires. This was
reported by al-Manaawi in Fayd al-Qadeer, in the commentary on the first hadeeth of
Abu Hurayrah quoted above.
(It should not resemble the clothing of men)
It was reported in the saheeh ahaadeeth that a woman who imitates men
in dress or in other ways is cursed. There follow some of the ahaadeeth that we know:
Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings
of Allaah be upon him) cursed the man who wears womens clothes, and the woman who
wears mens clothes.
Abd-Allaah ibn Amr said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: They are not part of us, the women
who imitate men and the men who imitate women.
Ibn Abbaas said: The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) cursed effeminate men and masculine women. He said, Throw them out of
your houses. He said: The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) expelled So and so, and Umar expelled So and so. According to
another version: The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) cursed men who imitate women and women who imitate men.
Abd-Allaah ibn Amr said: The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: There are three who will not enter
Paradise and Allaah will not even look at them on the Day of Resurrection: one who
disobeys his parents, a woman who imitates men, and the duyooth (cuckold, weak man who
feels no jealousy over his womenfolk).
Ibn Abi Maleekah whose name was Abd-Allaah ibn
Ubayd-Allaah said: It was said to Aaishah (may Allaah be
pleased with her), What if a woman wears (mens) sandals? She said:
The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed women
who act like men.
These ahaadeeth clearly indicate that it is forbidden for women to
imitate men and vice versa, This usually includes dress and other matters, apart from the
first hadeeth quoted above, which refers to dress only.
Abu Dawood said, in Masaail al-Imaam Ahmad (p.
261): I heard Ahmad being asked about a man who dresses his slave woman in a tunic.
He said, Do not clothe her in mens garments, do not make her look like a
man. Abu Dawood said: I said to Ahmad, Can he give her bachelor sandals to
wear? He said, No, unless she wears them to do wudoo. I said, What about for beauty?
He said, No. I said, Can he cut her hair short? He said, No.
(It should not resemble the dress of kaafir women).
It is stated in shareeah that Muslims, men and women alike,
should not resemble or imitate the kuffaar with regard to worship, festivals or clothing
that is specific to them. This is an important Islamic principle which nowadays,
unfortunately, is neglected by many Muslims, even those who care about religion and
calling others to Islam. This is due either to ignorance of their religion, or because
they are following their own whims and desires, or because of deviation, combined with
modern customs and imitation of kaafir Europe. This was one of the causes of the
Muslims decline and weakness, which enabled the foreigners to overwhelm and colonize
Verily, Allaah will not change the condition of a people as long as
they do not change their state themselves
interpretation of the meaning]. If only they knew.
It should be known that there is a great deal of saheeh evidence for
these important rules in the Quraan and Sunnah, and that the evidence in the
Quraan is elaborated upon in the Sunnah, as is always the case.
(It should not be a garment of fame and vanity).
Ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The
Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever wears
a garment of fame and vanity in this world, Allaah will clothe him in a garment of
humiliation on the Day of Resurrection, then He will cause Fire to flame up around
(Hijaab al-Marah al-Muslimah, p. 54-67).
And Allaah knows best.
Hijaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah, p. 54-67