Praise be to Allaah.
There is no proven report from the Prophet (blessings and
peace of Allah be upon him) that he prescribed a regular Sunnah (Sunnah
raatibah) prayer to be offered before it, and there is no proven report
from any of the Companions of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be
upon him) that they prayed any regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu‘ah like the
regular Sunnah prayer of Zuhr or any other prayer.
It is not valid to pray the regular Sunnah prayer of Zuhr on
Friday, because Jumu‘ah is not Zuhr; rather it is a prayer with its own
rulings. So it is not Zuhr and it is not valid either to compare it to Zuhr
in that regard.
See the answer to question no.
With regard to the report which says that Ibn Mas‘ood (may
Allah be pleased with him) used to pray four rak‘ahs before Jumu‘ah and four
afterwards, it was narrated by at-Tirmidhi in a mu‘allaqan which he narrated
in a way that indicates that it is weak; it is also mawqoof, with a isnaad
that ends with Ibn Mas‘ood. The commentator on at-Tirmidhi narrated from
al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) that ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq and
at-Tabaraani narrated it in a marfoo‘ report, but its isnaad has some
weakness and interruptions, and a report that is like this cannot be quoted
See: Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah, 8/261
Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said: (It is)
munkar, as it says in as-Silsilah ad-Da‘eefah, 3/83
It is mustahabb for the one who comes to Jumu‘ah to offer
voluntary prayers beforehand, whatever he is able to do, from when he enters
the mosque until the imam comes out to the people, without that being
limited to a specific number. So he may pray two or four rak‘ahs, or
whatever Allah wills that he should pray.
Al-Bukhaari (883) and Muslim (657) narrated that Salmaan
al-Faarisi said: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)
said: “Whoever does ghusl on Friday, purifies himself as much as he can,
uses (hair) oil or perfumes himself with the perfume of his house, then goes
out (for the Jumu‘ah prayer) and does not separate between two (persons
sitting together in the mosque), then prays as much as is decreed for him,
then remains silent whilst the imam is speaking, his sins between the
present and the last Friday will be forgiven for him.”
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said, discussing
matters that are specific to Friday:
It is not makrooh to pray on Friday at the time of the
zenith, according to ash-Shaafa‘i (may Allah have mercy on him) and those
who agreed with him. This is the view favoured by our shaykh, Abu’l-‘Abbaas
ibn Taymiyah, and he did not base his view on the hadeeth of Layth from
Mujaahid from Abu’l-Khaleel from Abu Qataadah from the Prophet (blessings
and peace of Allah be upon him), which states that it is makrooh to pray at
midday except on Friday, and he said: “Hell flares up (at noon) except on
Friday”. Rather he based his view on a report which states that whoever
comes to Jumu‘ah, it is mustahabb for him to pray until the imam comes out.
He quoted the hadeeth of Salmaan mentioned above, then he
said: The report recommends praying as much as is decreed for one, and not
stopping until the time when the imam comes out.
Hence more than one of the salaf, including ‘Umar ibn
al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him), who was followed in that by
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, said that the appearance of the imam prevents prayer
and his khutbah prevents speaking. They said that the factor which prevents
prayer is the appearance of the imam, not the mid-point of the day (noon).
Moreover, if the people are inside the mosque, beneath the
roof, and they cannot tell when the zenith occurs, and a man is focusing on
his prayer, he does not know when the zenith occurs and he cannot go out,
stepping over people’s necks to look at the sun and come back, and it is not
prescribed for him to do that. End quote from Zaad al-Ma‘aad, 1/365
Ash-Shawkaani also regarded this view as being more correct
and he noted that the hadeeth of Salmaan mentioned above makes an exception
to the general meaning of the hadeeths that forbid praying at the time of
the zenith. See Nayl al-Awtaar, 3/313
This view was also favoured by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may
Allah preserve him) and he quoted as evidence for it something similar to
what was narrated from Ibn al-Qayyim.
See: Minah al-‘Allaam Sharh Buloogh al-Muraam, 1/162
See also: al-Ajwibah an-Naafi‘ah by Shaykh al-Albaani
(may Allah have mercy on him), 59-70
Imam Abu Shaamah discussed these two issues: that there is no
regular Sunnah prayer before Jumu‘ah and that it is prescribed to offer
voluntary prayers before Jumu‘ah prayer until the imam comes out.
He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Chapter on innovations of Jumu‘ah
People usually pray between the two adhaans on Friday,
offering naafil prayers of two or four rak‘ahs, and so on, until the imam
comes out. That is permissible and it is not a problem from the point of
view of it being prayer. Rather the problem is what the common folk and most
of those who think of themselves as knowledgeable believe, that it is a
Sunnah prayer before Jumu‘ah, as they pray Sunnah before Zuhr, and they
declare their intention that it is the Sunnah of Jumu‘ah, and offer their
own reasoning for this view, based on the idea that if we say that Jumu‘ah
is a shortened form of Zuhr, then it has the same as Zuhr (Sunnah prayers
before and after, and so on).
None of that is based on a proper examination of the issue.
There is no Sunnah before Jumu‘ah, like ‘Isha’ and Maghrib, and also like
‘Asr according to one opinion, which is the correct opinion according to
some of them. It is a prayer that is like no other, with its own merits.
The evidence that there is no Sunnah before it is that what
is meant when we describe a prayer as being “Sunnah” is that it is based on
words or actions narrated from the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace
of Allah be upon him). There is no report from the Prophet (blessings and
peace of Allah be upon him) to indicate that the prayer before Jumu‘ah is
Sunnah, and it is possible to draw an analogy between prayers.
However, when it comes to praying after Jumu‘ah, it is
narrated in as-Saheeh that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah
be upon him) used to pray two rak‘ahs after Jumu‘ah. [Narrated by
al-Bukhaari (937) and Muslim (882) from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar] and that
he said: “Whoever among you wants to pray after Jumu‘ah, let him pray four
(rak‘ahs) Narrated by Muslim (881). Abu ‘Eesa at-Tirmidhi said: It was
narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) that he
instructed people to pray two rak‘ahs then four after Jumu‘ah. ‘Ata’ said: I
saw Ibn ‘Umar praying two rak‘ahs after Jumu‘ah, then he prayed four after
If you say: at-Tirmidhi also narrated from Ibn Mas‘ood (may
Allah be pleased with him) that he used to pray four rak‘ahs before Jumu‘ah
and four afterwards, and this was the view of an-Nawawi and Ibn al-Mubaarak,
so this indicates that there is a Sunnah prayer before it of four rak‘ahs,
as is also the case with Zuhr,
My response is: what is meant by ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood
praying four rak‘ahs before Jumu‘ah is that he used to do that voluntarily
until the imam came out, as we have mentioned above. How do you know that he
believed that it was the Sunnah prayer of Jumu‘ah?
More than that was narrated from others among the Sahaabah
(may Allah be pleased with them). Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundhir said: We narrated
from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that he used to pray twelve
rak‘ahs before Jumu‘ah. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be
pleased with him) that he used to pray eight rak‘ahs. This indicates that
they did this as something voluntary on their own initiative, without any
instructions from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him),
hence the variation in the numbers (of rak‘ahs) narrated from them. The
matter of voluntary prayers is broad in scope. And perhaps they did that, or
most of it, before the adhaan and the onset of the time for Jumu‘ah, because
they used to come early and pray until the imam came out.
They used to do something similar in the case of Eid prayer,
and it is definitively known that there is no Sunnah prayer connected to the
Eid prayer. They used to pray after the sun had risen high, either in the
musalla (prayer place) or in their houses, then they would offer the Eid
prayer. That was narrated from a number of the Sahaabah and Taabi‘een, and
al-Haafiz al-Bayhaqi devoted a chapter to that in his Sunan.
Moreover the evidence that this is correct is the fact that
the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to come out of
his house on Friday and ascend his minbar, then the mu’adhdhin would give
the call to prayer, and when he had finished the Prophet would start his
khutbah. If there were any Sunnah prayer before Jumu‘ah, he would have told
them to pray Sunnah after the adhaan and he would have done it himself. At
the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), there
was only this adhaan immediately before the khutbah, and that is the Maaliki
madhhab until the present day.
If you were to say: perhaps he (blessings and peace of Allah
be upon him) offered the Sunnah prayer in his house after the sun passed the
zenith, then he came out? I would say: If he did that, his wives (may Allah
be pleased with them) would have narrated it from him as they narrated all
other prayer s that he did in his house by night and by day, and the way in
which he prayed tahajjud and qiyaam al-layl. As no such thing as been
narrated, the basic principle is that it did not happen and that it was not
prescribed. End quote.
This issue was discussed further and at length by Imam
al-Haafiz Abu Shaamah (may Allah have mercy on him). See: al-Baa‘ith ‘ala
Inkaar al-Bida‘ wa’l-Hawaadith, p. 96 ff.
To sum up: There is no regular Sunnah prayer prescribed
before Jumu‘ah; rather what is prescribed is to offer whatever voluntary
prayers one wants, from the time one enters the mosque until the imam
ascends the minbar.
And Allah knows best.