Praise be to Allah.
doubt it is obligatory for the Muslim to be a follower of his Prophet
(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in what he prescribed and it is
not permissible for him to go against that or to introduce any innovation
into the religion, because of the evidence that indicates that it is
obligatory to follow and it is forbidden to introduce innovation. But it
should be noted that differing from the way of the Prophet (blessings and
peace of Allah be upon him) and falling into bid‘ah may mean one of two
introducing an act of worship for which there is no basis in Islam, such as
touching graves and seeking help from their occupants. The scholars call
this real innovation (al-bid‘ah al-haqeeqah). This is that which was not
prescribed at all.
act of worship may be originally prescribed in Islam, and what is contrary
to the sunnah may have to do with defining a certain time or place for it,
or a certain number of times it is to be repeated, or the manner in which it
is to be done or the reason for which it is to be done. This is called
innovation by addition (al-bid‘ah al-idaafiyyah); it is not bid‘ah unless it
is done regularly and repeatedly. If it is done only once or twice without
adhering to that, then it is not bid‘ah, such as if people pray qiyaam
(night prayer) in congregation (jamaa‘ah) on some occasion, without thinking
that there is any particular virtue in doing so.
ash-Shatibi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, discussing the “innovation
by addition”: The word bid‘ah refers to an invented way of doing something
in Islam that is similar to what is prescribed, of which the intention is to
go to extremes in worshipping Allah, may He be glorified.
includes regularly adhering to certain manners and forms of worship, such as
reciting dhikr (remembrance of Allah) together in unison, taking the
birthday of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) as an Eid
(festival), and so on.
also includes adhering to specific acts of worship at specific times that
were not defined as such in sharee‘ah (Islamic law), such as always fasting
on the fifteenth of Sha‘ban (an-nusf min Sha‘ban) and spending that night in
quote from al-I‘tisam, 1/37-39
Adhering to a thing means doing it regularly and repeatedly.
(supplication) is prescribed during the prayer and following it, according
to the correct scholarly opinion. What is not allowed is reciting du‘a in
unison. The evidence for it being prescribed to offer du‘a after the prayer
is as follows:
was narrated that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
When the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said the salam
(greetings in conclusion) at the end of the prayer, he would say: “Allahumma
ighfir li ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu wa ma asrartu wa ma a’lantu wa ma
asraftu wa ma anta a’lamu bihi minni. Anta al-muqaddim wa anta al-mu’akhkhir
la ilaha illa anta (O Allah! Forgive me what I have done in the past, and
what I will do in the future, and what I have concealed, and what I have
done openly, and what I have exceeded in, whatever You know about me more
than I. You are the One Who brings forward, and You are the One Who puts
back, there is no god except You).”
Dawood]. This does not contradict the report that says that the Prophet
(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said this du‘a before the salam.
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to recite this
du‘a in both places. See: al-Majmoo‘.
was narrated that Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: It was
said to the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him):
Which du‘a is most likely to be heard? He said: “(That which is said) in the
last part of the night and at the end of the obligatory prayers.” [al-Tirmidhi]
the end of the prayers” may refer to after the prayers or in the last part
of the prayers. In the following hadeeth, for example, what is meant is
after the prayer: ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The
Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) instructed me
to recite al-Mu‘awwidhat (soorahs that give protection) at the end of every
prayer (i.e., after the prayer).
[Ahmad, Abu Dawood]
for reciting du‘a in unison, there is no report that speaks of it; hence
doing it regularly following the prayers comes under the heading of bid
acts of worship must be done as prescribed by sharee‘ah in six ways:
quantity, manner, time, place, reason and type. For more details of that
please see the answer to question no.
is nothing wrong with reading Soorat al-Kahf on days other than Friday, if
the reader wants to do that or if it so happens as part of his regular daily
portion of Quran, and he will have a tenfold reward for each letter, as is
the reward for reading other soorahs (chapters). But that is on condition
that he does not set aside a special day for reading it, as is the case on
Fridays, and hence he should not believe that reading it on this day is
better than reading it on other days or that there is a particular virtue of
reading it on a specific day that is like the virtue of reading it on
Friday, because that virtue applies only to Friday, according to those who
say that the hadeeth which speaks of that is saheeh (authentic).
Allah knows best.