Praise be to Allaah.
There are many conditions of du’aa’, including the
1 – You should call upon no one except Allaah. The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If you ask, then ask
of Allaah, and if you seek help, then seek the help of Allaah.” Narrated by
al-Tirmidhi, 2516; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’.
This is what is meant by
the verse (interpretation of the meaning):
“And the mosques are for Allaah (Alone), so invoke not
anyone along with Allaah”
This is the most important condition of du’aa’, without which
no du’aa’ will be accepted and no good deed taken up. There are some people
who make du’aa’ to the dead and regard them as intermediaries between them
and Allaah. They claim that these righteous people will bring them closer to
Allaah and intercede for them with Him, and they claim that their sins are
so great that they have no status before Allaah, and that is why they set up
these intermediaries and pray to them instead of Allaah. But Allaah says
(interpretation of the meaning):
“And when My slaves ask
you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to
them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when
he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor)”
2 – You should seek to draw close to Allaah in one of the
ways that are prescribed in sharee’ah.
3 – You should avoid seeking a quick response, for this is
one of the problems that may prevent the du’aa’ from being accepted. In the
hadeeth it says: “One of you may be answered so long as he is not hasty and
says, ‘I said du’aa’ but I got no response.’” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6340;
In Saheeh Muslim (2736) it says: “A man’s (du’aa’s)
may be answered so long as it does not involve sin or severing the ties of
kinship or hastening.” It was said: “O Messenger of Allaah, what does
hastening mean?” He said: “When he says, ‘I made du’aa’ and I made du’aa’
but I did not see any response,’ so he gets discouraged and stops making
4 – The du’aa’ should
not involve sin or severing of the ties of kinship, as stated in the hadeeth
quoted above: “A man’s (du’aa’s) may be answered so long as he does not
involve sin or severing the ties of kinship …”
5 – You should think positively of Allaah. The Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah, may He be
exalted, says: ‘I am as My slave thinks I am.’” Narrated by al-Bukhaari,
7405; Muslim, 4675. According to the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah: “Make du’aa’
to Allaah when you are certain of a response.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi;
classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 245.
Whoever thinks well of
his Lord, Allaah will bestow His bounty upon him and give him in abundance.
6 – You should be focused, aware of the greatness of the One
upon Whom you are calling. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him) said: “Know that Allaah does not answer a du’aa from a
distracted heart.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3479; classed as hasan by
al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 245.
7 – Ensuring that one’s
food comes from good (halaal) sources. Allaah says (interpretation of the
“Verily, Allaah accepts only from those who are
Al-Muttaqoon (the pious)”
The Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated that a response was unlikely for
one who eats, drinks and wears haraam things. In the hadeeth it says: [The
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] mentioned the man
who undertakes a lengthy journey and is disheveled and covered with dust,
and he stretches his hands towards heaven saying, ‘O Lord, O Lord,’ when his
food is haraam, his drink is haraam, his clothes are haraam. He is nourished
with haraam, so how can he be granted a response?
Narrated by Muslim, 1015.
Ibn al-Qayyim said: Thus eating haraam things saps the
strength of the du’aa’ and weakens it.
8 – You should avoid
aggression in du’aa’, for Allaah does not like aggression in du’aa’. Allaah
says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes
not the aggressors”
See also question no. 41017.
9 – You should not let du’aa’ distract you from an obligatory
duty such as an obligatory prayer that is now due, and you should not
neglect parents’ rights on the basis of du’aa’. This is indicated by the
story of Jurayj, when he did not answer his mother’s call and turned instead
to his prayer. She prayed against him and Allaah tested him sorely.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah
have mercy on him) said: The scholars said: This indicates that what he
should have done is to answer her, because he was offering a supererogatory
(naafil prayer), continuation of which was voluntary, not obligatory,
whereas answering his mother and honouring her was obligatory and disobeying
her was haraam.
Saheeh Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi,
For more information see Kitaab al-Du’aa’ by Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Hamad.