Praise be to Allaah.
principle that we have stated in numerous fatwas is that it is not
permissible for a woman to travel without a mahram, whether the trip is for
an act of worship such as Hajj, or to visit her parents, or it is a
permissible kind of journey for other purposes.
indicated by the texts and common sense. For example:
(blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel
except with a mahram and no man should enter upon her unless she has a
mahram with her.” A man said: O Messenger of Allah, I want to go out with
such-and-such an army, but my wife wants to go for Hajj. He said: “Go with
(1339) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the
Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “It is not
permissible for a woman who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to travel
the distance of one day, except with a mahram.”
are many hadeeths which speak of the prohibition on a woman travelling
without a mahram; they are general in meaning and include all kinds of
travel usually causes exhaustion and hardship, and because women are weak
and need someone to look after them and stay with them, and things may
happen in the absence of her mahram that she is not able to deal with. These
are things that are well known and are frequently seen nowadays because of
the large number of accidents involving cars and other means of
a woman travels alone she may be approached and tempted to do evil,
especially when there is a great deal of corruption. Someone may sit next to
her who does not fear Allah and he made may doing haraam actions seem
appealing to her. It is perfectly wise that the woman should be accompanied
by her mahram when she travels, because the purpose of having her mahram
present is to protect her and look after her. Travelling is a situation in
which emergencies may arise, no matter what the length of the journey is.
(may Allah have mercy on him) said: To sum up, everything that may be called
travel is forbidden to women without a husband or mahram. End quote.
one of the scholars have narrated that there is consensus among the fuqaha’
that women are not allowed to travel without a mahram, except in exceptional
Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not
differ concerning the fact that women are not allowed to travel for purposes
other than the obligation (the obligatory Hajj) except with a husband or
mahram, apart from a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in dar al-harb
(non-Muslim territory) or a female prisoner who is released. Others added:
or a woman who becomes separated from her travelling companions and is found
by a trustworthy man; in that case it is permissible for him to accompany
her until he brings her back to the group.
from Fath al-Baari, 4/76
to a woman travelling for the obligatory Hajj without a mahram, the scholars
differed as to whether this is permissible. The correct scholarly view is
that it is not permissible. This has been discussed previously in the answer
to question no. 34380.
This is the
basic principle concerning this matter: a woman does not have the right to
travel without a mahram and she must be accompanied by a mahram throughout
the journey; it is not sufficient for her husband to bring her to the
airport and for her father to meet her in the other country. But when there
is a case of necessity, there is nothing wrong with it, because necessity
makes permissible things which are ordinarily not allowed.
that, if obtaining French nationality will relieve your friend’s wife of
considerable hardship, and it is not possible for her mahram to accompany
her on her journey, then there is nothing wrong with her travelling on her
own in the manner you describe, just as there is nothing wrong with her
obtaining this nationality.
Jibreen (may Allah preserve him) was asked: What is the ruling on a woman
travelling on her own by plane for a reason, with her mahram taking her to
the airport and another mahram meeting her at the other airport?
nothing wrong with that if it is too difficult for the mahram, such as her
husband or father, if the woman has to travel and the mahram cannot
accompany her. In that case there is nothing to prevent that on condition
that the first mahram takes her to the airport and does not leave her until
she boards the plane, and he contacts the country to which she is headed and
makes sure that her mahrams there will meet her in the airport, and he tells
them the time of arrival and the flight number. That is because cases of
necessity have their own rulings. And Allah knows best. May Allah send
blessings and peace upon Muhammad and his family and companions.
from Fataawa Ibn Jibreen.
question no. 14235
And Allah knows best.